Correlates of maleness and femaleness

© Paul Cooijmans

Introduction

"Female" and "Male" are here defined as "Having chosen the corresponding option in the test registration form". When "Female" is encoded as 0, "Intersexual" as .5, and "Male" as 1, the following statistics result:

Statistics of Sex as of 24 September 2019

Contents type: Personal information.   

0 (female) 531
0.5 (intersexual) 1
1 (male) 2182

Remark: This male/female ratio of 4.1 understates the sex difference in high-range test taking activity considerably; on the level of test submissions, this ratio is more like 11, because males take more tests per candidate.

Correlation of Sex with tests by Paul Cooijmans

(Test index) Test name n r
(21) Psychometric Qrosswords190.63
(6) De Laatste Test70.60
(47) Psychometrically Activated Grids Acerbate Neuroticism90.56
(33) Problems In Gentle Slopes of the first degree200.48
(84) Bonsai Test250.42
(76) Analogies subtest of Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)170.41
(69) Odds280.40
(36) Reflections In Peroxide190.38
(65) Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)160.36
(112) Combined Numerical and Spatial sections of Test For Genius - Revision 2016290.35
(103) Problems In Gentle Slopes of the second degree230.34
(77) Analogies #1320.32
(105) Space, Time, and Hyperspace - Revision 2016300.31
(87) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 2660.31
(117) The Hammer Of Test-Hungry - Revision 2013160.30
(56) Short Test For Genius730.30
(74) Cooijmans On-Line Test310.30
(95) A-16 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic, 21 items50.29
(66) Test For Genius - Revision 2004800.29
(55) Spatial Insight Test260.29
(48) Narcissus' last stand170.29
(111) Test For Genius - Revision 2016210.29
(80) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #41680.26
(53) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #32730.26
(52) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #23540.24
(73) Qoymans Automatic Test #3110.23
(7) The Final Test1250.22
(81) Association subtest of Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)200.20
(27) Spatial section of Test For Genius - Revision 20041290.20
(18) The Nemesis Test480.20
(57) Space, Time, and Hyperspace1810.19
(35) Intelligence Quantifier by assessment1380.18
(28) The Test To End All Tests660.17
(19) Numerical section of Test For Genius - Revision 2010830.16
(68) Numbers1200.16
(5) Daedalus Test320.16
(107) The Alchemist Test180.16
(67) A-18 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic70.15
(51) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #11770.15
(3) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #5830.15
(31) Numerical section of The Marathon Test440.14
(26) Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 20041140.14
(104) The Final Test - Revision 2013170.13
(45) Numerical and spatial sections of The Marathon Test420.13
(4) A Paranoiac's Torture: Intelligence Test Utilizing Diabolic Exactitude250.13
(116) Gliaweb Riddled Intelligence Test (old version)460.12
(40) Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 2008800.12
(63) Long Test For Genius840.12
(11) Isis Test690.12
(75) Analogies of Long Test For Genius980.11
(41) The LAW - Letters And Words190.11
(0) Test of the Beheaded Man390.10
(54) Test of Shock and Awe230.09
(16) Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test910.09
(23) Gliaweb Riddled Intelligence Test - Revision 20111560.09
(15) Letters220.09
(32) Spatial section of The Marathon Test430.09
(42) The Marathon Test280.09
(108) Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 2016220.08
(29) Words230.08
(93) A-12 - Early experimental oral association test in Netherlandic, 40 items180.07
(12) Cooijmans On-Line Test - Two-barrelled version320.07
(109) The Bonsai Test - Revision 2016250.07
(39) Combined Numerical and Spatial sections of Test For Genius - Revision 2010560.07
(24) Reason - Revision 2008820.06
(70) A-22 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic, 27 items (maximum score 31)200.06
(106) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 4650.06
(1) Cartoons of Shock540.05
(79) Association subtest of Long Test For Genius1090.02
(88) Giga Test50.02
(25) The Sargasso Test460.01
(10) Genius Association Test1040.01
(44) Associative LIMIT610.01
(85) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 1650.01
(30) Verbal section of The Marathon Test300.01
(61) A-10 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic80.00
(72) Qoymans Automatic Test #144-0.00
(43) Test For Genius - Revision 201038-0.03
(37) Problems In Gentle Slopes of the third degree22-0.04
(2) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 3143-0.06
(8) Female Intelligence Test9-0.08
(50) Qoymans Automatic Test #235-0.08
(90) Analogies subtest of Long Test For Genius (French)11-0.09
(96) A-17 - Early experimental association test in English, 45 items8-0.12
(60) Association and Analogies (French)12-0.13
(91) Association subtest of Long Test For Genius (French)11-0.22
(64) Long Test For Genius (French)10-0.23
(97) A-19 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic, 23 items5-0.26
(14) Low Countries Aptitude Test7-0.35

Weighted average of correlations: 0.154 (weighted sum: 751.00)

Conservatively estimated minimum g loading: 0.39

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used, including possible floor/ceiling scores or outliers.

Remark: For clarity, a negative correlation here means that females score higher than males on that test. With regard to the size of the correlations, one should keep in mind throughout this report that these are point-biserial correlations (= one of the variables is a dichotomy) which tend to have lower values than normal correlations.

Correlation of Sex with tests by others

(Test index) Test name n r
(209) Drenth number series130.75
(221) National I.Q. Tests100.61
(207) Chimera Test280.48
(244) Scholastic Aptitude Test (new)230.39
(213) Encephalist - R200.32
(239) Titan Test470.27
(247) Advanced Intelligence Test700.27
(205) Cito-toets230.27
(229) Mega Test640.25
(204) Chimera High Ability Riddle Test1040.24
(212) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (raw)460.21
(211) Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version2890.19
(230) Omega Contemplative Items Pool210.15
(200) American College Testing program330.12
(237) Sigma Test560.11
(236) International High IQ Society Miscellaneous tests820.10
(225) Logima Strictica 36960.09
(208) California Test of Mental Maturity130.07
(242) Unknown and miscellaneous tests3930.06
(220) Cattell Culture Fair790.05
(240) Strict Logic Spatial Exam 48470.00
(243) Scholastic Aptitude Test (old)53-0.01
(238) 916 Test33-0.01
(234) Strict Logic Sequences Exam I114-0.02
(235) Nonverbal Cognitive Performance Examination63-0.04
(218) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (I.Q.)63-0.05
(201) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales67-0.06
(202) Cattell Verbal13-0.06
(203) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales for Children15-0.11
(206) W-8733-0.11
(245) Stanford-Binet17-0.13
(219) Graduate Record Examination59-0.16
(232) GMAT12-0.17
(231) Mysterium Entrance Exam48-0.17
(214) Epiq Tests15-0.21
(228) Miller Analogies Test (raw; old version)19-0.23
(217) G-test14-0.24

Weighted average of correlations: 0.089 (weighted sum: 195.81)

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used, including possible floor/ceiling scores or outliers.

Please be aware that correlations with these external tests are in most cases affected (depressed, typically) by one or more of the following: (1) Little overlap with the object test because of the much lower ceilings and inherent ceiling effects of the tests used in regular psychology; (2) Candidates reporting scores selectively, for instance only the higher ones while withholding lower ones; (3) Candidates reporting, or having been reported by psychometricians, incorrect scores.

Estimated loadings of Sex on particular item types

These are estimated g factor loadings, but against homogeneous tests (containing only particular item types) as opposed to non-compound heterogeneous tests. Although tending to surprise the lay person, it is not uncommon for tests to have high loadings on item types they do not actually contain themselves. Such loadings reflect the empirical fact that most tests for mental abilities measure primarily g, regardless of their contents; that the major part of test score variance is caused by g, and only a minor part by factors germane to particular item types. It is of key importance to understand that this is a fact of nature, a natural phenomenon, and not something that was built into the tests by the test constructors.

Typeg loading of Sex on that type
Verbal0.42
Numerical0.42
Spatial0.42
Logical0.37
Heterogeneous0.32

Compound tests have been left out of this table to avoid overlap.

Balanced g loading = 0.39

Remark: This table implies that the sex difference on high-range tests is smallest on heterogeneous tests and largest on one-sided tests.

National means for Sex

Country n mean score
Argentina81.00
Bosnia_and_Herzegovina51.00
Brazil211.00
Croatia51.00
Cuba21.00
Cyprus31.00
Czech_Republic31.00
Hong_Kong51.00
Hungary31.00
Japan171.00
Luxembourg21.00
Malta21.00
Russia41.00
Serbia21.00
Slovakia21.00
Thailand41.00
Italy280.96
Denmark220.95
France390.95
Finland540.94
Norway180.94
Spain320.94
Korea_South220.91
Mexico110.91
Germany870.91
Sweden800.90
Canada450.89
Poland180.89
South_Africa90.89
Bulgaria80.88
Israel80.88
Greece300.87
United_States4380.86
Austria140.86
Romania70.86
Turkey140.86
Yugoslavia70.86
Singapore60.83
Slovenia60.83
India310.81
Philippines50.80
Belgium420.79
Australia270.78
China200.78
Malaysia40.75
Portugal80.75
Switzerland80.75
United_Kingdom640.75
Chile30.67
Iran30.67
New_Zealand60.67
Netherlands1850.64

For reasons of privacy, only countries with 2 or more candidates are included in this table. Ranking is based on the unrounded means, and then alphabetic.

Note that these national means represent the proportion of males among the candidates from that country.

Correlation with national I.Q.'s of Sex

Correlation of this test with national average I.Q.'s published by Lynn and Vanhanen:

Although very small, this negative point-biserial correlation is highly significant (p < .006) as a result of the large number of candidates. In words, it means that in countries with higher average I.Q.'s, female participation in high-range testing is greater. This concords with the author's hypothesis that sex differences are smaller in populations of higher average I.Q.

Correlation of Sex with personal details

Personalia n r
P.S.I.A. Rational3720.27
P.S.I.A. Cold3720.23
P.S.I.A. System factor2320.17
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid3720.15
P.S.I.A. Just3720.13
P.S.I.A. Rare3720.12
P.S.I.A. Cruel3720.12
P.S.I.A. Introverted3720.10
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor4790.08
P.S.I.A. Antisocial3720.08
Observed associative horizon710.06
Year of birth17780.04
Educational level9860.02
Father's educational level9130.01
Disorders (own)9950.00
Mother's educational level921-0.00
P.S.I.A. True372-0.01
P.S.I.A. Orderly372-0.02
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor479-0.05
Disorders (parents and siblings)962-0.05
P.S.I.A. Extreme372-0.07
P.S.I.A. Neurotic372-0.13
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms187-0.14
Cooijmans Inventory of Neo-Marxist Attitudes135-0.21
Observed behaviour151-0.36

These correlations reveal that females are markedly higher than males on neo-Marxist attitudes, and less often engage in negative behaviours like test fraud and insulting responses to disappointing scores. Males, on the other hand, are higher on the P.S.I.A. scales Rational and Cold.