# Personality Scales for Intelligent Adults - Statistics of Extreme scale

## Introduction

These statistics are from the version of the P.S.I.A. that was in use from 2003 to 2007, and was highly similar to the later Revision 2007. The scores are t-scores (mean = 50, σ = 10) normed on an earlier group (partly overlapping this one), so this group may not have an exact mean and σ of 50 and 10. An explanation of the scale can be found through the test's order page.

Explanatory and analytical remarks regarding the interpretation of the statistics are purposely largely avoided, so it is up to the reader to study the report carefully and thus obtain a clear impression of the test's validity - that is, "what it measures". Although the statistics sometimes reveal an almost chilling discriminative power, experience shows that explicitly observing that in a remark tends to evoke negative responses in persons who recognize themselves ("Your remark betrays that your are biased! The test only measures your personal biases!", etcetera).

## Scores on P.S.I.A. Extreme

Contents type: Personality test other than for mental ability.   Period: 2003-2007

• n: 295
• Mean: 49.44
• σ: 10.89
• Range: 83.0
• Male mean: 48.97 (n = 237)
• Female mean: 51.12 (n = 57)
• Resolution: 0.41
 2 * 12 * 22 * 23 ** 26 * 29 * 30 * 31 ** 32 *** 33 ** 34 ** 35 ****** 36 *** 37 ***** 38 ************* 39 ************ 40 ****** 41 ******** 42 ********* 43 ******** 44 ************* 45 ***** 46 ********** 47 ******* 48 ************ 49 ************ 50 ************** 51 *************** 52 ********* 53 ******** 54 ********* 55 ******* 56 ******* 57 ********* 58 ************** 59 ****** 60 ********** 61 ******* 62 **** 63 ** 64 **** 65 **** 66 ****** 67 ** 68 * 69 *** 70 * 71 ** 72 * 74 ** 83 * 85 *

## Scores by males

n = 237

 2 * 12 * 22 * 23 ** 26 * 29 * 30 * 31 ** 32 ** 33 ** 34 ** 35 ****** 36 ** 37 ***** 38 ********* 39 *********** 40 ****** 41 ******* 42 **** 43 ******* 44 ********** 45 **** 46 ********* 47 ****** 48 *********** 49 ******** 50 *********** 51 ************* 52 ****** 53 ****** 54 ******** 55 ***** 56 ***** 57 ***** 58 ************* 59 *** 60 ********* 61 ******* 62 *** 63 * 64 **** 65 ** 66 ****** 68 * 69 ** 71 * 72 * 74 ** 83 * 85 *

## Scores by females

n = 57

 32 * 36 * 38 **** 39 * 41 * 42 ***** 43 * 44 *** 45 * 46 * 47 * 48 * 49 **** 50 *** 51 ** 52 *** 53 ** 54 * 55 ** 56 ** 57 **** 58 * 59 *** 60 * 62 * 63 * 65 * 67 ** 69 * 70 * 71 *

## Correlation of P.S.I.A. Extreme with other tests by Paul Cooijmans

Test n r
Odds70.41
Bonsai Test60.29
Qoymans Automatic Test #350.17
Numbers160.11
The Final Test220.02
Genius Association Test290.02
Reason - Revision 20085-0.01
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #491-0.05
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #26-0.05
Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test16-0.10
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #17-0.10
Reason13-0.17
The Test To End All Tests13-0.18
Numerical Insight Test8-0.19
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 220-0.19
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 20085-0.21
Analogies of Long Test For Genius13-0.22
Intelligence Quantifier by assessment15-0.23
Cartoons of Shock7-0.23
KIT Intelligence Test - first attempts8-0.24
Associative LIMIT Test6-0.24
Spatial Insight Test14-0.27
Spatial section of Test For Genius - Revision 200426-0.27
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #325-0.27
Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 200426-0.30
Test For Genius - Revision 200426-0.31
Space, Time, and Hyperspace23-0.33
Association subtest of Long Test For Genius14-0.34
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice11-0.34
The Nemesis Test7-0.39
Isis Test11-0.45
Long Test For Genius9-0.49
The Sargasso Test5-0.49
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #55-0.55
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 17-0.58
Test of Shock and Awe9-0.64
Cooijmans On-Line Test5-0.73

Weighted average of correlations: -0.191

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used to obtain the true, honest statistics; correlations have not been artificially inflated by leaving out ceiling scores, outliers or other anomalies.

## Correlation of P.S.I.A. Extreme with tests by others

Test n r
916 Test50.60
Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version110.37
Titan Test80.18
T.R.I.50.17
Cito-toets50.14
Nonverbal Cognitive Performance Examination20-0.02
Cattell Culture Fair10-0.05
Strict Logic Sequences Exam I19-0.06
International High IQ Society Miscellaneous tests11-0.07
Mysterium Entrance Exam12-0.08
Epiq Tests6-0.17
Scholastic Aptitude Test (old)8-0.28
W-876-0.32
Logima Strictica 3616-0.39
American College Testing program7-0.49
Unknown tests22-0.54
Sigma Test10-0.56

Weighted average of correlations: -0.139

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used to obtain the true, honest statistics; correlations have not been artificially inflated by leaving out ceiling scores, outliers or other anomalies.

Please be aware that correlations with these external tests are in most cases affected (depressed, typically) by one or more of the following: 1) Little overlap with the object test because of the much lower ceilings and inherent ceiling effects of the tests used in regular psychology; 2) Candidates reporting scores selectively, for instance only the higher ones while withholding lower ones; 3) Candidates reporting, or having been reported by psychometricians, incorrect scores.

These are estimated g factor loadings, but against homogeneous tests containing only particular item types, as opposed to non-compound heterogeneous tests. Although tending to surprise the lay person, it is not uncommon for tests to have high loadings on item types they do not actually contain themselves. Such loadings reflect the empirical fact that most tests for mental abilities measure primarily g, regardless of their contents; that the major part of test score variance is caused by g, and only a minor part by factors germane to particular item types. It is of key importance to understand that this is a fact of nature, a natural phenomenon, and not something that was built into the tests by the test constructors.

Verbal-0.35
Numerical0.31
Spatial-0.50
Logical-0.51
Heterogeneous-0.56

There is no overlap between the categories in this table as a result of leaving out compound tests.

## National means for P.S.I.A. Extreme

Country n mean score
Mexico360.00
Argentina255.00
Romania255.00
Brazil754.71
Norway554.40
Philippines254.00
South_Africa453.75
Bulgaria253.00
Italy352.67
United_Kingdom1351.23
United_States9851.09
Australia650.00
Austria249.50
Belgium849.50
Turkey449.50
Netherlands3449.15
Germany1248.00
Spain648.00
India1246.83
Finland546.40
China345.67
New_Zealand245.50
Poland345.33
Israel445.00
Sweden1744.88
Bosnia_and_Herzegovina242.50
Denmark242.00
France242.00
Yugoslavia541.00
Korea_South337.00

For reasons of privacy, only countries with 2 or more candidates are included in this table. Ranking is based on the unrounded means, and then alphabetic.

## Correlation of P.S.I.A. Extreme with personal details

Personalia n r
Observed behaviour210.49
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor2950.43
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor2950.42
Observed associative horizon90.34
P.S.I.A. True2950.33
P.S.I.A. Rare2950.31
P.S.I.A. Introverted2950.19
Disorders (parents and siblings)2910.18
Disorders (own)2920.17
P.S.I.A. System factor470.11
P.S.I.A. Rational2950.11
P.S.I.A. Neurotic2950.11
Father's educational level2770.10
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid2950.10
P.S.I.A. Orderly2950.09
P.S.I.A. Antisocial2950.06
Year of birth2920.03
Educational level292-0.00
Mother's educational level279-0.00
Sex294-0.08
P.S.I.A. Just295-0.08
P.S.I.A. Cold295-0.31
P.S.I.A. Cruel295-0.39

## Correlation with personal details of P.S.I.A. Extreme - within females

Personalia n r
P.S.I.A. Neurotic570.42
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor570.38
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor570.36
Disorders (own)550.33
P.S.I.A. Rare570.29
Father's educational level470.28
Mother's educational level470.26
P.S.I.A. True570.25
Disorders (parents and siblings)540.23
P.S.I.A. Introverted570.15
Year of birth550.05
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid570.05
P.S.I.A. Rational570.01
P.S.I.A. Antisocial57-0.01
Educational level55-0.11
P.S.I.A. System factor10-0.14
P.S.I.A. Orderly57-0.14
P.S.I.A. Just57-0.14
P.S.I.A. Cruel57-0.41
P.S.I.A. Cold57-0.57

## Correlation with personal details of P.S.I.A. Extreme - within males

Personalia n r
Observed behaviour190.48
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor2370.44
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor2370.43
P.S.I.A. True2370.34
P.S.I.A. Rare2370.33
Observed associative horizon80.24
P.S.I.A. Introverted2370.21
Disorders (parents and siblings)2370.17
P.S.I.A. Rational2370.16
P.S.I.A. System factor370.15
Disorders (own)2370.14
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid2370.12
P.S.I.A. Orderly2370.12
Father's educational level2300.08
P.S.I.A. Antisocial2370.07
P.S.I.A. Neurotic2370.04
Educational level2370.03
Year of birth2370.02
Mother's educational level232-0.04
P.S.I.A. Just237-0.05
P.S.I.A. Cold237-0.24
P.S.I.A. Cruel237-0.38

## Correlation with national I.Q.s of P.S.I.A. Extreme

Correlation of this test with national average I.Q.s published by Lynn and Vanhanen:

• r = -0.07 (n = 293)

In parentheses the number of score pairs on which that estimated g factor loading is based. The Upward and Downward values are calculated including the pertinent score itself. It is normal that g factor loadings go down when the range is restricted like this, but careful study of the Upward and Downward columns may reveal possible scores below or above which the test loses validity.

ScoreUpward (n)Downward (n)
0-0.44 (546)NaN (0)
10-0.44 (546)NaN (0)
20-0.44 (546)NaN (0)
30-0.49 (533)NaN (0)
40-0.47 (426)0.45 (63)
50-0.49 (203)-0.12 (254)
600.44 (33)-0.31 (449)
70NaN (0)-0.39 (494)
80NaN (0)-0.43 (544)
90NaN (0)-0.44 (546)

## Concluding remarks

This scale is so interesting that it requires a comment: The following facts are implied with significance in this report:

• Persons with higher mental ability tend to give less extreme responses (that is, "2" rather than "0" or "4");
• Well-behaved persons, ethical persons, and deviant persons tend to give more extreme responses (that is, "0" or "4" rather than "2");
• Cruel persons and unempathic persons tend to give less extreme responses.

This complex triangle of relations is possible because the correlations involved, though significant and sizeable, are lower than 1, and therefore allow such relations. This, in turn, results from non-unitary, multi-dimensional nature of personality. Personality consists of a number of aspects which are to some extent independent, that is, have imperfect intercorrelations. This is in contrast with the state of affairs among the various tests for mental ability, which tend to intercorrelate highly, implying a unitary trait ("g"). It is important to understand that these facts are natural phenomena, and have not been built into the tests by the test constructors, nor are they inherent to the statistical methods of correlation or factor analysis.