Statistics of Odds

© Paul Cooijmans


This test consisted of number series created by one of the Giga Society members. It was discontinued because solutions to several of its problems could be found on the Internet.

Scores on Odds as of 13 February 2023

Contents type: Numerical.   Period: 2002-2012

1 *
2 *
3 **
4 *
6 **
7 *
8 ****
9 ***
10 ***
12 ***
13 *****
14 ***

Correlation of Odds with other mental ability tests

Test name n r
Sigma Test (Melão Hindemburg)31.00
Problems In Gentle Slopes of the second degree30.99
Omega Contemplative Items Pool (Tommy Smith)40.98
Test For Genius - Revision 201030.98
Mega Test (Ronald K. Hoeflin)40.98
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice40.97
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #240.96
Cooijmans On-Line Test30.94
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 130.94
Numerical section of Test For Genius - Revision 201040.92
The Final Test - Revision 201330.90
Combined Numerical and Spatial sections of Test For Genius - Revision 201030.88
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 340.86
The Nemesis Test40.86
Short Test For Genius30.85
The Hammer Of Test-Hungry - Revision 201330.82
Cooijmans On-Line Test - Two-barrelled version30.80
Logima Strictica 36 (Robert Lato)70.77
KIT Intelligence Test - first attempts30.76
Tests by Greg Grove (aggregate)30.71
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (I.Q.)30.66
Association subtest of Long Test For Genius50.66
Spatial Insight Test30.65
Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test80.65
Associative LIMIT50.65
Genius Association Test80.64
Strict Logic Sequences Exam I (Jonathan Wai)80.62
Sequentia Numerica Form I (Alexander Herkner)40.61
Isis Test60.60
A Paranoiac's Torture: Intelligence Test Utilizing Diabolic Exactitude40.60
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 270.59
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales40.58
Analogies of Long Test For Genius40.37
Bonsai Test60.36
Long Test For Genius40.29
Unknown and miscellaneous tests130.29
Strict Logic Sequences Exam II (Jonathan Wai)50.26
Spatial section of Test For Genius - Revision 200490.23
Test For Genius - Revision 200490.23
Test of Shock and Awe40.21
The Final Test90.20
Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 200490.11
The Sargasso Test50.03
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #490.01
Daedalus Test30.00
Space, Time, and Hyperspace7-0.05
Cartoons of Shock6-0.05
Cattell Culture Fair5-0.08
Non-Verbal Cognitive Performance Examination (Xavier Jouve)6-0.11
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #14-0.19
Test of the Beheaded Man3-0.24
Reflections In Peroxide3-0.28
Narcissus' last stand3-0.34
The Test To End All Tests6-0.44
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #55-0.50
Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version (Etienne Forsström)3-0.50
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 20085-0.61
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #36-0.65
Reason - Revision 20085-0.75

Weighted average of correlations: 0.375 (N = 320, weighted sum = 120)

Estimated g factor loading: 0.61

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 3 score pairs. All known pairs are used, including possible floor/ceiling scores or outliers.

Estimated loadings of Odds on particular item types

These are estimated g factor loadings, but against homogeneous tests (containing only particular item types) as opposed to non-compound heterogeneous tests. Although tending to surprise the lay person, it is not uncommon for tests to have high loadings on item types they do not actually contain themselves. Such loadings reflect the empirical fact that most tests for mental abilities measure primarily g, regardless of their contents; that the major part of test score variance is caused by g, and only a minor part by factors germane to particular item types. It is of key importance to understand that this is a fact of nature, a natural phenomenon, and not something that was built into the tests by the test constructors.

Typeng loading of Odds on that type

N = 227

Compound tests have been left out of this table to avoid overlap.

Balanced g loading = 0.59

National medians for Odds

Country n median score

For reasons of privacy, only countries with 3 or more candidates are included in this table. Ranking is based on the medians, and then alphabetic.

Correlation with national I.Q.'s of Odds

Correlation of this test with national average I.Q.'s published by Lynn and Vanhanen:

Correlation of Odds with personal details

Personalia n r
Observed associative horizon40.47
Observed behaviour60.37
Disorders (own)21-0.00
Year of birth26-0.06
Disorders (parents and siblings)21-0.09
Father's educational level21-0.10
Mother's educational level21-0.12
Educational level21-0.13
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms6-0.69

Estimated g factor loadings for restricted ranges

In parentheses the number of score pairs on which that estimated g factor loading is based. The goal of this is to verify the hypothesis that g becomes less important, accounts for a smaller proportion of the variance, at higher I.Q. levels. The mere fact of restricting the range like this also depresses the g loading compared to computing it over the test's full range, so it would be normal for these values to be lower than the test's full-range g loading.

Below 1st quartile0.43 (41)
Below median0.51 (153)
Above median0.43 (214)
Above 3rd quartile-0.50 (15)



Scores by age

Age class n Median score
60 to 64213.5
55 to 5918.0
40 to 44310.0
35 to 3912.0
30 to 3437.0
25 to 2989.0
22 to 24312.0
20 or 21411.0

N = 26

Scores by year taken

Year taken n median score

ryear taken × median score = 0.55 (N = 29)

Robustness and overall test quality

Item analysis

Item statistics are not published as that would help candidates. To detect bad items, answers and comments from candidates are studied, as well as, for each problem, the correlation with total score on the remaining problems (item-rest correlation) and the proportion of candidates getting it wrong (hardness of the item). Possible bad items are revised, replaced, or removed, possibly resulting in a revised version of the test.