Statistics of Disorders

© Paul Cooijmans


For many years, candidates have been asked to report whether any psychiatric disorders occur in them. Below are the available statistics of that field, when "yes" is coded as 1 and "no" is coded as 0. In addition, the value of 2 has been assigned to candidates in whom serious disordered behaviour has been directly observed by the test scorer.

Scores on Disorders (own) as of 28 January 2023

Contents type: Personal information and/or observation.   

0 ***********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
1 ******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
2 *****************

Notice that the male and female means are about equal.

Scores by females

n = 152

0 *************************************************************************************************************
1 ******************************************
2 *

Scores by males

n = 982

0 **********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
1 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
2 ****************

Correlation of Disorders (own) with other mental ability tests

Test name n r
California Test of Mental Maturity70.80
Laaglandse Aanlegtest - Herziening 201640.65
G-test (Nikos Lygeros)90.61
Mega Test (Ronald K. Hoeflin)130.54
Graduate Record Examination130.54
New York High I.Q. Society tests50.50
Tests by Nicolas Elenas (aggregate)140.49
Cattell Verbal (also known as Cattell B)90.46
Graduate Management Admission Test40.42
Female Intelligence Test60.38
Titan Test (Ronald K. Hoeflin)220.37
Cooijmans On-Line Test160.30
Chimera High Ability Riddle Test (Bill Bultas)50.27
Scholastic Aptitude Test (old)190.24
Encephalist - R (Xavier Jouve)60.24
Tests by James Dorsey (aggregate)70.24
Qoymans Automatic Test #2130.23
De Roskam40.19
Cattell Culture Fair400.18
F.N.A. (Xavier Jouve)40.18
A-22 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic, 27 items (maximum score 31)40.17
Bonsai Test170.16
Genius Association Test1160.15
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (I.Q.)330.13
Drenth number series70.10
Association subtest of Long Test For Genius470.08
Test of Shock and Awe190.07
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #3860.05
Qoymans Automatic Test #3100.04
Associative LIMIT770.04
Omega Contemplative Items Pool (Tommy Smith)70.04
Tests by Nikolaos Soulios (aggregate)240.03
Logima Strictica 36 (Robert Lato)530.03
The Piper's Test170.02
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (raw)250.02
Only idiots110.02
Reason - Revision 20081060.02
Analogies of Long Test For Genius410.01
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 1180.01
Strict Logic Spatial Exam 48 (Jonathan Wai)31-0.00
Sequentia Numerica Form I (Alexander Herkner)13-0.00
International High IQ Society tests (aggregate)55-0.01
Ultra Test (Ronald K. Hoeflin)10-0.01
Association subtest of Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)7-0.02
Test For Genius - Revision 200478-0.02
The Bonsai Test - Revision 201662-0.03
Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 2004110-0.04
Non-Verbal Cognitive Performance Examination (Xavier Jouve)41-0.04
The Final Test69-0.04
Strict Logic Sequences Exam II (Jonathan Wai)20-0.04
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #4148-0.05
Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version (Etienne Forsström)58-0.05
Strict Logic Sequences Exam I (Jonathan Wai)75-0.05
Cartoons of Shock49-0.05
A Relaxing Test10-0.05
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 2008106-0.06
Combined Numerical and Spatial sections of Test For Genius - Revision 201055-0.06
Numerical section of Test For Genius - Revision 2010117-0.06
Sigma Test (Melão Hindemburg)26-0.06
Spatial section of Test For Genius - Revision 2004125-0.06
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice31-0.06
Labyrinthine LIMIT20-0.07
Cooijmans Intelligence Test 562-0.08
Tests by Paul Laurent Miranda (aggregate)16-0.09
Test For Genius - Revision 201036-0.10
Unknown and miscellaneous tests232-0.10
Short Test For Genius13-0.10
Problems In Gentle Slopes of the third degree51-0.12
Long Test For Genius35-0.12
Logima Strictica 24 (Robert Lato)18-0.12
Test For Genius - Revision 201646-0.12
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 3185-0.12
Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 201645-0.13
Scholastic Aptitude Test (new)12-0.14
Reflections In Peroxide49-0.15
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 262-0.15
Hoeflin Power Test (Ronald K. Hoeflin)7-0.15
Spatial section of The Marathon Test61-0.15
The Test To End All Tests63-0.16
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #5108-0.17
Problems In Gentle Slopes of the first degree26-0.17
Isis Test83-0.18
Tests by Mislav Predavec (aggregate)14-0.18
Problems In Gentle Slopes of the second degree46-0.18
Tests by Ivan Ivec (aggregate)27-0.18
Gliaweb Riddled Intelligence Test - Revision 2011199-0.18
Tests by Jason Betts (aggregate)23-0.18
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #217-0.19
Test of the Beheaded Man51-0.19
Epiq Tests (aggregate)26-0.20
The Nemesis Test59-0.20
Dicing with death15-0.20
Qoymans Automatic Test #114-0.20
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 4103-0.20
Combined Numerical and Spatial sections of Test For Genius - Revision 201668-0.20
Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test112-0.21
The Sargasso Test68-0.21
Gliaweb Riddled Intelligence Test (old version)43-0.21
Space, Time, and Hyperspace66-0.22
The Final Test - Revision 201320-0.22
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales51-0.22
Space, Time, and Hyperspace - Revision 201670-0.22
The Hammer Of Test-Hungry - Revision 201318-0.22
Daedalus Test35-0.22
Numerical and spatial sections of The Marathon Test60-0.22
916 Test (Laurent Dubois)24-0.23
A Paranoiac's Torture: Intelligence Test Utilizing Diabolic Exactitude42-0.24
Analogies subtest of Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)7-0.25
Test of Inductive Reasoning / J.C.T.I. (Xavier Jouve)25-0.25
American College Testing program18-0.26
Verbal section of The Marathon Test42-0.27
Analogies #19-0.27
Narcissus' last stand32-0.28
Numerical Insight Test13-0.30
W-87 (International Society for Philosophical Enquiry)9-0.30
Spatial Insight Test25-0.31
Tests by Greg Grove (aggregate)41-0.32
European I.Q. Test9-0.33
Psychometric Qrosswords22-0.33
Numerical section of The Marathon Test63-0.35
KIT Intelligence Test - first attempts15-0.35
De Laatste Test5-0.35
The Marathon Test38-0.37
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #116-0.37
The LAW - Letters And Words19-0.38
Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)6-0.39
The Alchemist Test34-0.40
Divine Psychometry10-0.42
Psychometrically Activated Grids Acerbate Neuroticism14-0.45
Cooijmans On-Line Test - Two-barrelled version37-0.45
Tests by Brendan Harris (aggregate)6-0.45
Gliaweb Raadselachtig Analogieënproefwerk11-0.48
The Blue Test (Andres Gomez Emilsson)11-0.49
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales for Children9-0.51
Miller Analogies Test (raw; old version)7-0.54
Advanced Intelligence Test (Randy Myers)15-0.59
Queendom Culture Fair9-0.60
Association and Analogies (German)5-0.61
Tests by Iakovos Koukas (aggregate)6-0.62
Concep-T (Laurent Dubois)9-0.64
Tests by Theodosis Prousalis (aggregate)10-0.75
Low Countries Aptitude Test7-0.81

Weighted average of correlations: -0.112 (N = 5528, weighted sum = -618.22)

Conservatively estimated minimum g loading: -0.33

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 4 score pairs. All known pairs are used, including possible floor/ceiling scores or outliers.

This negative correlation of disorders with I.Q. test scores and g is a long-standing observation. Given this long history and this huge amount of data, it seems safe to conclude now that -.33 is about the real value of the g loading of having a psychiatric disorder, at least on high-range tests. Over the full range of intelligence, g loadings are generally larger than in restricted ranges due to the statistical phenomenon of attenuation through restriction of range, so that in society at large it must be feared that those with psychiatric disorders have an even greater disadvantage on g-loaded tasks than this -.33 value suggests.

Correlation of Disorders (own) with other tests - for females

Test name n r
(220) Cattell Culture Fair60.74
(87) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 240.67
(23) Gliaweb Riddled Intelligence Test - Revision 2011170.44
(19) Numerical section of Test For Genius - Revision 201040.38
(3) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #550.18
(26) Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 200440.15
(10) Genius Association Test6-0.07
(80) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #415-0.08
(40) Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 20085-0.19
(242) Unknown and miscellaneous tests14-0.31
(57) Space, Time, and Hyperspace4-0.32
(2) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 314-0.38
(106) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 46-0.40
(24) Reason - Revision 20085-0.43
(116) Gliaweb Riddled Intelligence Test (old version)4-0.58
(1) Cartoons of Shock5-0.58
(44) Associative LIMIT4-0.63
(16) Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test4-0.64
(7) The Final Test5-0.76
(0) Test of the Beheaded Man4-0.80
(211) Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version (Etienne Forsström)4-0.93

Weighted average of correlations: -0.154 (N = 139, weighted sum = -21.46)

Conservatively estimated minimum g loading among females: -0.39

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 4 score pairs. All known pairs are used, including possible floor/ceiling scores or outliers.

Estimated loadings of Disorders (own) on particular item types

These are estimated g factor loadings, but against homogeneous tests (containing only particular item types) as opposed to non-compound heterogeneous tests. Although tending to surprise the lay person, it is not uncommon for tests to have high loadings on item types they do not actually contain themselves. Such loadings reflect the empirical fact that most tests for mental abilities measure primarily g, regardless of their contents; that the major part of test score variance is caused by g, and only a minor part by factors germane to particular item types. It is of key importance to understand that this is a fact of nature, a natural phenomenon, and not something that was built into the tests by the test constructors.

Typeng loading of Disorders (own) on that type

N = 3849

Compound tests have been left out of this table to avoid overlap.

Balanced g loading = -0.33

National means for Disorders (own)

Country n mean score

For reasons of privacy, only countries with 2 or more candidates are included in this table. Ranking is based on the unrounded means, and then alphabetic.

Correlation with national I.Q.'s of Disorders (own)

Correlation of this test with national average I.Q.'s published by Lynn and Vanhanen:

Correlation of Disorders (own) with personal details

Personalia n r
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms1190.41
Disorders (parents and siblings)10970.40
Observed associative horizon460.26
PSIA Neurotic - Revision 2007900.21
PSIA Cruel - Revision 2007900.10
PSIA Aspergoid - Revision 2007900.10
Year of birth11240.07
Father's educational level10400.07
Cooijmans Inventory of Neo-Marxist Attitudes540.06
Mother's educational level10480.06
PSIA Antisocial - Revision 2007900.01
PSIA Orderly - Revision 200790-0.01
PSIA Rare - Revision 200790-0.02
PSIA Just - Revision 200790-0.03
PSIA Introverted - Revision 200790-0.03
PSIA Deviance factor - Revision 200790-0.06
PSIA System factor - Revision 200790-0.06
PSIA Cold - Revision 200790-0.07
PSIA Rational - Revision 200790-0.09
PSIA Extreme - Revision 200790-0.09
PSIA True - Revision 200790-0.10
PSIA Ethics factor - Revision 200790-0.12
Educational level1101-0.15
Observed behaviour104-0.17

The Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms and Disorders in parents and siblings are the best predictors of disorders. The zero correlation with Sex reflects the fact that the sexes have equal means.

Correlation with personal details of Disorders (own) - within females

Personalia n r
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms130.79
Observed associative horizon80.77
Disorders (parents and siblings)1440.35
PSIA Neurotic - Revision 200790.30
PSIA Aspergoid - Revision 200790.26
PSIA Just - Revision 200790.23
PSIA System factor - Revision 200790.15
Father's educational level1330.14
Mother's educational level1320.10
PSIA Introverted - Revision 200790.09
PSIA Cold - Revision 200790.08
Year of birth1470.06
PSIA Orderly - Revision 200790.03
Observed behaviour100.00
Educational level144-0.08
PSIA Rare - Revision 20079-0.11
PSIA Deviance factor - Revision 20079-0.15
PSIA Cruel - Revision 20079-0.16
PSIA Extreme - Revision 20079-0.30
PSIA Rational - Revision 20079-0.35
PSIA Antisocial - Revision 20079-0.42
PSIA True - Revision 20079-0.44
PSIA Ethics factor - Revision 20079-0.45

Correlation with personal details of Disorders (own) - within males

Personalia n r
Disorders (parents and siblings)9520.41
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms1030.38
PSIA Neurotic - Revision 2007810.21
Observed associative horizon380.18
PSIA Cruel - Revision 2007810.10
PSIA Aspergoid - Revision 2007810.08
Year of birth9740.08
Father's educational level9060.06
Mother's educational level9150.05
Cooijmans Inventory of Neo-Marxist Attitudes530.05
PSIA Antisocial - Revision 2007810.03
PSIA Rare - Revision 200781-0.01
PSIA Orderly - Revision 200781-0.02
PSIA Introverted - Revision 200781-0.05
PSIA Deviance factor - Revision 200781-0.05
PSIA True - Revision 200781-0.06
PSIA Just - Revision 200781-0.07
PSIA Extreme - Revision 200781-0.07
PSIA Rational - Revision 200781-0.09
PSIA Ethics factor - Revision 200781-0.09
PSIA System factor - Revision 200781-0.09
PSIA Cold - Revision 200781-0.10
Educational level956-0.16
Observed behaviour94-0.18