Correlates of maleness and femaleness

© September 2013 Paul Cooijmans

Introduction

The database with test score information contains the following numbers of males and females:

"Female" and "Male" are here defined as "Having chosen the corresponding option in the test registration form". When "Female" is encoded as 0 and "Male" as 1, the following statistics result:

Correlation of Sex with tests by Paul Cooijmans

(Test index) Test name n r
(21) Psychometric Qrosswords150.93
(47) Psychometrically Activated Grids Acerbate Neuroticism50.81
(6) De Laatste Test70.60
(41) The LAW - Letters And Words120.59
(36) Reflections In Peroxide80.52
(15) Letters150.49
(84) Bonsai Test250.42
(76) Analogies subtest of Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)170.41
(69) Odds280.40
(48) Narcissus' last stand80.39
(77) Analogies #1310.37
(65) Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)160.36
(87) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 2660.31
(56) Short Test For Genius730.30
(95) A-16 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic, 21 items50.29
(74) Cooijmans On-Line Test300.29
(29) Words160.29
(66) Test For Genius - Revision 2004800.29
(55) Spatial Insight Test260.29
(80) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #41660.27
(53) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #32620.26
(35) Intelligence Quantifier by assessment1100.25
(52) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #23340.25
(7) The Final Test1210.23
(73) Qoymans Automatic Test #3110.23
(30) Verbal section of The Marathon Test190.23
(5) Daedalus Test210.21
(27) Spatial section of Test For Genius - Revision 2004970.21
(81) Association subtest of Long Test For Genius (Netherlandic)200.20
(57) Space, Time, and Hyperspace1790.20
(28) The Test To End All Tests580.19
(26) Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 2004930.18
(18) The Nemesis Test280.17
(4) A Paranoiac's Torture: Intelligence Test Utilizing Diabolic Exactitude130.17
(68) Numbers1200.16
(51) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #11740.16
(67) A-18 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic70.15
(63) Long Test For Genius840.12
(1) Cartoons of Shock340.11
(75) Analogies of Long Test For Genius980.11
(11) Isis Test460.11
(54) Test of Shock and Awe230.09
(3) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #5430.09
(40) Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 2008420.09
(24) Reason - Revision 2008440.08
(93) A-12 - Early experimental oral association test in Netherlandic, 40 items180.07
(70) A-22 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic, 27 items (maximum score 31)200.06
(79) Association subtest of Long Test For Genius1090.02
(88) Giga Test50.02
(10) Genius Association Test810.02
(39) Combined Numerical and Spatial sections of Test For Genius - Revision 2010150.01
(85) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 1630.01
(72) Qoymans Automatic Test #1420.01
(61) A-10 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic80.00
(16) Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test61-0.01
(19) Numerical section of Test For Genius - Revision 201018-0.02
(12) Cooijmans On-Line Test (Two-barrelled)10-0.04
(2) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 352-0.07
(50) Qoymans Automatic Test #235-0.08
(90) Analogies subtest of Long Test For Genius (French)11-0.09
(44) Associative LIMIT37-0.09
(43) Test For Genius - Revision 201013-0.10
(96) A-17 - Early experimental association test in English, 45 items8-0.12
(60) Association and Analogies (French)12-0.13
(8) Female Intelligence Test8-0.13
(0) Test of the Beheaded Man21-0.16
(91) Association subtest of Long Test For Genius (French)11-0.22
(64) Long Test For Genius (French)10-0.23
(97) A-19 - Early experimental association test in Netherlandic, 23 items5-0.26
(14) Low Countries Aptitude Test7-0.35

Weighted average of correlations: 0.177

Conservatively estimated minimum g loading: 0.42

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used to obtain the true, honest statistics; correlations have not been artificially inflated by leaving out ceiling scores, outliers or other anomalies.

For clarity, a negative correlation here means that females score higher than males on that test.

Correlation of Sex with tests by others

(Test index) Test name n r
(209) Drenth number series120.75
(221) National I.Q. Tests100.61
(207) Chimera Test280.48
(244) Scholastic Aptitude Test (new)200.45
(213) Encephalist - R190.32
(239) Titan Test470.27
(205) Cito-toets230.27
(204) Chimera High Ability Riddle Test1010.24
(211) Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version2890.19
(243) Scholastic Aptitude Test (old)460.15
(230) Omega Contemplative Items Pool210.15
(200) American College Testing program330.12
(237) Sigma Test550.11
(225) Logima Strictica 36900.09
(208) California Test of Mental Maturity120.09
(220) Cattell Culture Fair730.08
(240) Strict Logic Spatial Exam 48410.08
(242) Unknown tests1800.06
(229) Mega Test660.05
(212) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (raw)40-0.00
(238) 916 Test32-0.01
(234) Strict Logic Sequences Exam I104-0.02
(236) International High IQ Society Miscellaneous tests44-0.03
(218) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (I.Q.)59-0.03
(235) Nonverbal Cognitive Performance Examination63-0.04
(201) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales62-0.09
(206) W-8733-0.11
(219) Graduate Record Examination50-0.12
(203) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales for Children10-0.14
(231) Mysterium Entrance Exam47-0.14
(245) Stanford-Binet20-0.17
(202) Cattell Verbal15-0.20
(214) Epiq Tests15-0.21
(217) G-test14-0.24

Weighted average of correlations: 0.084

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used to obtain the true, honest statistics; correlations have not been artificially inflated by leaving out ceiling scores, outliers or other anomalies.

Please be aware that correlations with these external tests are in most cases affected (depressed, typically) by one or more of the following: 1) Little overlap with the object test because of the much lower ceilings and inherent ceiling effects of the tests used in regular psychology; 2) Candidates reporting scores selectively, for instance only the higher ones while withholding lower ones; 3) Candidates reporting, or having been reported by psychometricians, incorrect scores.

Estimated loadings of Sex on particular item types

These are estimated g factor loadings, but against homogeneous tests containing only particular item types, as opposed to non-compound heterogeneous tests.

Typeg loading of Sex on that type
Verbal0.45
Numerical0.42
Spatial0.42
Logical0.42
Heterogeneous0.34

Compound tests have been left out of this table to avoid overlap.

Balanced g loading = 0.41

Remark: This table implies that the sex difference in score on high-range tests is smallest on heterogeneous tests and largest on one-sided verbal tests. Keep in mind that the estimated g factor loading is the square root of the weighted mean of the correlations with other tests, so that for instance the (point-biserial, in this case) correlation of sex with heterogeneous tests is .342 = .116

National means for Sex

Country n mean score
Argentina71.00
Bosnia_and_Herzegovina41.00
Brazil211.00
Chile21.00
Croatia41.00
Cyprus21.00
Czech_Republic41.00
Hong_Kong41.00
Hungary21.00
Italy191.00
Japan101.00
Korea_South81.00
Luxembourg21.00
Malta21.00
Philippines41.00
Romania31.00
Russia31.00
Serbia21.00
Switzerland41.00
Thailand21.00
Finland440.98
France310.97
Spain260.96
Denmark150.93
Norway140.93
Canada340.91
Sweden560.91
Greece220.91
Germany590.90
United_States3410.86
Yugoslavia70.86
Poland130.85
India250.84
Israel60.83
Austria100.80
Bulgaria50.80
Malaysia50.80
Mexico100.80
Singapore50.80
Turkey100.80
Belgium380.79
Australia210.71
South_Africa70.71
United_Kingdom530.68
China90.67
Iran30.67
New_Zealand60.67
Portugal60.67
Slovenia30.67
Netherlands1770.64

For reasons of privacy, only countries with 2 or more candidates are included in this table. Ranking is based on the unrounded means, and then alphabetic.

Note that these national means represent the proportion of males among the candidates from that country.

Correlation of Sex with personal details

Personalia n r
P.S.I.A. Rational3410.26
P.S.I.A. Cold3410.24
P.S.I.A. System factor2020.15
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid3410.14
P.S.I.A. Rare3410.12
P.S.I.A. Just3410.11
P.S.I.A. Cruel3410.11
Candidate's self-estimated I.Q.280.11
P.S.I.A. Introverted3410.10
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor4480.09
P.S.I.A. Antisocial3410.07
Observed associative horizon600.07
Educational level7010.06
Father's educational level6430.04
Year of birth14210.01
Mother's educational level6510.00
Disorders (own)718-0.01
P.S.I.A. Orderly341-0.01
P.S.I.A. True341-0.04
Disorders (parents and siblings)684-0.05
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor448-0.06
P.S.I.A. Extreme341-0.07
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms155-0.13
P.S.I.A. Neurotic341-0.14
Observed behaviour136-0.36
Cooijmans Inventory of Neo-Marxist Attitudes58-0.42

These correlations reveal that females are markedly higher than males on neo-Marxist attitudes, and less often engage in negative behaviours like test fraud and insulting responses to disappointing scores. Males on the other hand are higher on the P.S.I.A. scales Rational and Cold.

Correlation with national I.Q.'s of Sex

Correlation of Sex with national average I.Q.'s published by Lynn and Vanhanen:

Although very low, this negative point-biserial correlation is highly significant (p < .006) as a result of the high number of candidates involved. In words, it means that in countries with higher average I.Q.'s, female participation in high-range testing is greater.