Statistics of Reason - Revision 2008

© July 2016 Paul Cooijmans

Norms

Scores on Reason - Revision 2008

Contents type: Logical.   Period: 2008-present

1 *
4 *
6 *
24 *
28 **
47 *
49 *
53 *
56 *
57 *
60 **
62 *
63 *
69 *
71 *
72 ***
73 *
74 *
75 *
76 *
78 ****
79 ****
80 *
83 *
84 ****
85 **
86 *
87 *****
88 ********
89 *
91 *
92 *
93 *
94 **

Scores by males

n = 57

1 *
4 *
6 *
24 *
28 *
47 *
49 *
53 *
56 *
57 *
60 **
62 *
63 *
69 *
71 *
72 ***
73 *
74 *
75 *
76 *
78 ****
79 ****
80 *
83 *
84 ***
85 *
86 *
87 *****
88 ********
89 *
91 *
92 *
93 *
94 **

Scores by females

n = 3

28 *
84 *
85 *

Correlation of Reason - Revision 2008 with other tests by Paul Cooijmans

(Test index) Test name n r
(21) Psychometric Qrosswords50.96
(109) The Bonsai Test - Revision 201660.95
(40) Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 2008570.89
(82) Reason110.89
(30) Verbal section of The Marathon Test80.84
(0) Test of the Beheaded Man130.83
(48) Narcissus' last stand80.81
(45) Numerical and spatial sections of The Marathon Test80.74
(32) Spatial section of The Marathon Test80.73
(33) Problems In Gentle Slopes of the first degree80.73
(36) Reflections In Peroxide90.72
(31) Numerical section of The Marathon Test80.71
(29) Words80.71
(66) Test For Genius - Revision 2004150.69
(104) The Final Test - Revision 201350.69
(42) The Marathon Test60.69
(1) Cartoons of Shock200.68
(41) The LAW - Letters And Words80.67
(25) The Sargasso Test150.63
(2) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 3220.63
(15) Letters80.62
(35) Intelligence Quantifier by assessment230.58
(7) The Final Test150.57
(28) The Test To End All Tests110.57
(68) Numbers60.56
(27) Spatial section of Test For Genius - Revision 2004290.56
(12) Cooijmans On-Line Test - Two-barrelled version110.55
(16) Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test200.53
(57) Space, Time, and Hyperspace50.51
(3) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #5570.51
(44) Associative LIMIT170.48
(18) The Nemesis Test90.46
(4) A Paranoiac's Torture: Intelligence Test Utilizing Diabolic Exactitude110.45
(87) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 2100.45
(26) Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 2004260.44
(10) Genius Association Test200.42
(62) Reason Behind Multiple-Choice100.40
(80) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #4140.36
(103) Problems In Gentle Slopes of the second degree80.33
(23) Gliaweb Riddled Intelligence Test - Revision 2011120.23
(39) Combined Numerical and Spatial sections of Test For Genius - Revision 2010150.21
(19) Numerical section of Test For Genius - Revision 2010180.20
(11) Isis Test150.13
(53) Qoymans Multiple-Choice #360.12
(106) Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 4100.10
(43) Test For Genius - Revision 2010100.10
(55) Spatial Insight Test50.06
(5) Daedalus Test70.00

Weighted average of correlations: 0.548

Conservatively estimated minimum g loading: 0.74

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used, including possible floor/ceiling scores or outliers.

Correlation of Reason - Revision 2008 with tests by others

(Test index) Test name n r
(239) Titan Test70.91
(238) 916 Test70.62
(235) Nonverbal Cognitive Performance Examination60.35
(225) Logima Strictica 3690.27
(211) Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version50.26
(242) Unknown and miscellaneous tests260.16
(234) Strict Logic Sequences Exam I150.15
(248) Gliaweb Riddled Intelligence Test (old version)100.11
(231) Mysterium Entrance Exam80.09
(240) Strict Logic Spatial Exam 4880.08

Weighted average of correlations: 0.250

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used, including possible floor/ceiling scores or outliers.

Please be aware that correlations with these external tests are in most cases affected (depressed, typically) by one or more of the following: (1) Little overlap with the object test because of the much lower ceilings and inherent ceiling effects of the tests used in regular psychology; (2) Candidates reporting scores selectively, for instance only the higher ones while withholding lower ones; (3) Candidates reporting, or having been reported by psychometricians, incorrect scores.

Estimated loadings of Reason - Revision 2008 on particular item types

These are estimated g factor loadings, but against homogeneous tests (containing only particular item types) as opposed to non-compound heterogeneous tests. Although tending to surprise the lay person, it is not uncommon for tests to have high loadings on item types they do not actually contain themselves. Such loadings reflect the empirical fact that most tests for mental abilities measure primarily g, regardless of their contents; that the major part of test score variance is caused by g, and only a minor part by factors germane to particular item types. It is of key importance to understand that this is a fact of nature, a natural phenomenon, and not something that was built into the tests by the test constructors.

Typeg loading of Reason - Revision 2008 on that type
Verbal0.73
Numerical0.63
Spatial0.73
Logical0.74
Heterogeneous0.72

Compound tests have been left out of this table to avoid overlap.

Balanced g loading = 0.71

National medians for Reason - Revision 2008

Country n median score
Portugal285.5
Germany484.5
United_States1484.0
China483.0
Spain580.0
Finland279.0
Canada275.5
Greece575.0
Bulgaria273.5
India255.5

For reasons of privacy, only countries with 2 or more candidates are included in this table. Ranking is based on the medians, and then alphabetic.

Correlation with national I.Q.'s of Reason - Revision 2008

Correlation of this test with national average I.Q.'s published by Lynn and Vanhanen:

Correlation of Reason - Revision 2008 with personal details

Personalia n r
Observed associative horizon90.58
Cooijmans Inventory of Neo-Marxist Attitudes80.53
Candidate's self-estimated I.Q.160.26
Mother's educational level560.24
P.S.I.A. Orderly170.23
Observed behaviour170.15
Father's educational level540.15
P.S.I.A. Rational170.14
P.S.I.A. True170.11
Year of birth590.07
Sex600.07
Educational level570.06
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor220.05
P.S.I.A. Cruel17-0.00
P.S.I.A. Introverted17-0.00
Disorders (own)56-0.01
P.S.I.A. Cold17-0.06
P.S.I.A. Extreme17-0.08
Disorders (parents and siblings)56-0.16
P.S.I.A. Rare17-0.17
P.S.I.A. Neurotic17-0.18
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid17-0.23
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor22-0.24
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms11-0.38
P.S.I.A. Just17-0.42
P.S.I.A. Antisocial17-0.62
P.S.I.A. System factor19-0.72

Correlation with personal details of Reason - Revision 2008 - within females

Personalia n r
Educational level31.00
Year of birth30.97
Mother's educational level30.51
Father's educational level30.17
Disorders (own)3-0.49
Disorders (parents and siblings)3-0.49

Correlation with personal details of Reason - Revision 2008 - within males

Personalia n r
Cooijmans Inventory of Neo-Marxist Attitudes80.53
Observed associative horizon80.46
Mother's educational level530.24
P.S.I.A. Orderly170.23
Candidate's self-estimated I.Q.150.20
Father's educational level510.17
P.S.I.A. Rational170.14
Observed behaviour160.12
P.S.I.A. True170.11
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor220.05
Educational level540.04
Year of birth560.04
Disorders (own)530.03
P.S.I.A. Cruel17-0.00
P.S.I.A. Introverted17-0.00
P.S.I.A. Cold17-0.06
P.S.I.A. Extreme17-0.08
Disorders (parents and siblings)53-0.12
P.S.I.A. Rare17-0.17
P.S.I.A. Neurotic17-0.18
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid17-0.23
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor22-0.24
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms11-0.38
P.S.I.A. Just17-0.42
P.S.I.A. Antisocial17-0.62
P.S.I.A. System factor19-0.72

Estimated g factor loadings upward and downward of particular scores

In parentheses the number of score pairs on which that estimated g factor loading is based. The goal of this is to verify the hypothesis that g becomes less important, accounts for a smaller proportion of the variance, at higher I.Q. levels. The mere fact of restricting the range like this also depresses the g loading compared to computing it over the test's full range, so it would be normal for both values to be lower than the test's full-range g loading.

Raw scoreUpward g (n)Downward g (n)
00.74 (656)NaN (0)
50.50.61 (504)0.70 (33)
68.50.61 (450)0.59 (92)
790.52 (292)0.70 (364)
840.43 (187)0.69 (413)
880.34 (38)0.73 (586)
89.5NaN (0)0.73 (589)
96NaN (0)0.74 (656)

Although this table can not yet show it in full detail, there is "ceiling bumping" on this test, with some high-scoring candidates sacrificing a near-perfect score by gambling, aiming for a perfect score but ending up in the high 80s. The nature of the test seems to invite this behaviour.

Reliability

Note: Crohnbach's alpha can not be computed for this test because some of the items give scores outside the range of 0 to 1.

Error

Scores by age

Age class n median score
60 to 64187.0
55 to 59254.5
50 to 54128.0
45 to 49681.5
40 to 44667.0
35 to 39580.0
30 to 34986.0
25 to 291374.0
22 to 24979.0
20 or 21378.0
18 or 19372.0
17169.0

Scores by year taken

Year taken n median score
2008787.0
2009865.5
20101084.0
2011779.0
2012572.0
2013787.0
2014573.0
2015378.0
2016876.5

ryear taken × median score = -0.12 (n = 60)

Robustness and overall test quality

Item analysis

Item statistics are not published as that would help future candidates. To detect bad items, answers and comments from candidates are studied, as well as, for each problem, the correlation with total score and the proportion of candidates getting it wrong (hardness of the item). Possible bad items are removed or revised, resulting in a revised version of the test.