Personality Scales for Intelligent Adults - Statistics of Just scale

© Jan. 2011 Paul Cooijmans

Introduction

These statistics are from the version of the P.S.I.A. that was in use from 2003 to 2007, and was highly similar to the later Revision 2007. The scores are t-scores (mean = 50, σ = 10) normed on an earlier group (partly overlapping this one), so this group may not have an exact mean and σ of 50 and 10. An explanation of the scale can be found through the test's order page.

Explanatory and analytical remarks regarding the interpretation of the statistics are purposely largely avoided, so it is up to the reader to study the report carefully and thus obtain a clear impression of the test's validity - that is, "what it measures". Although the statistics sometimes reveal an almost chilling discriminative power, experience shows that explicitly observing that in a remark tends to evoke negative responses in persons who recognize themselves ("Your remark betrays that your are biased! The test only measures your personal biases!", etcetera).

Scores on P.S.I.A. Just

Contents type: Personality test other than for mental ability.   Period: 2003-2007

30 **
31 **
32 *
33 ***
34 ******
35 **
36 *******
37 *********
38 ******
39 ***********
40 ******
41 ********
42 *****
43 *******
44 *************
45 **********
46 *********
47 **************
48 ************
49 **********
50 ************
51 **************
52 *************
53 *********
54 *********
55 **************
56 *****
57 ********
58 ********
59 ****
60 **********
61 *************
62 *
63 *****
64 ***
65 **
66 *
67 ****
68 ***
69 *
70 **
71 *
72 ***
73 *
76 ***
77 *
83 *
86 *

Scores by males

n = 237

30 **
31 *
33 ***
34 *****
35 **
36 *****
37 ******
38 *****
39 **********
40 ****
41 ******
42 *****
43 *****
44 ********
45 *******
46 ********
47 **********
48 *********
49 *********
50 ********
51 *************
52 **********
53 *********
54 ********
55 ***********
56 **
57 ********
58 ********
59 ***
60 *******
61 ************
62 *
63 ****
64 ***
65 **
67 ***
68 ***
69 *
70 **
71 *
72 *
73 *
76 ***
77 *
83 *
86 *

Scores by females

n = 57

31 *
32 *
34 *
36 **
37 **
38 *
39 *
40 **
41 **
43 **
44 *****
45 ***
46 *
47 ****
48 ***
49 *
50 ****
51 *
52 ***
54 *
55 ***
56 ***
59 *
60 ***
61 *
63 *
66 *
67 *
72 **

Correlation of P.S.I.A. Just with other tests by Paul Cooijmans

Test n r
Odds70.42
Qoymans Automatic Test #350.40
Long Test For Genius90.35
Numbers160.35
Isis Test110.26
The Nemesis Test70.23
Cooijmans On-Line Test50.23
Spatial Insight Test140.21
Space, Time, and Hyperspace230.20
Spatial section of Test For Genius - Revision 2004260.01
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 220-0.03
Test For Genius - Revision 200426-0.07
Association subtest of Long Test For Genius14-0.10
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #491-0.13
Numerical Insight Test8-0.14
KIT Intelligence Test - first attempts8-0.17
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #17-0.19
Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test16-0.19
Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 200426-0.20
Cartoons of Shock7-0.20
The Final Test22-0.28
Test of the Beheaded Man5-0.32
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice11-0.33
The Test To End All Tests13-0.33
Analogies of Long Test For Genius13-0.38
Intelligence Quantifier by assessment15-0.43
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #26-0.44
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 17-0.45
Reason13-0.47
Genius Association Test29-0.55
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #325-0.59
Test of Shock and Awe9-0.73
Bonsai Test6-0.78
The Sargasso Test5-0.81
Associative LIMIT Test6-0.85
Reason - Revision 20085-0.90
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #55-0.94
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 20085-0.95

Weighted average of correlations: -0.193

Conservatively estimated minimum g loading: -0.44

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used to obtain the true, honest statistics; correlations have not been artificially inflated by leaving out ceiling scores, outliers or other anomalies.

Correlation of P.S.I.A. Just with tests by others

Test n r
Graduate Record Examination50.94
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (I.Q.)50.83
Cito-toets50.48
American College Testing program70.43
Mysterium Entrance Exam120.25
Scholastic Aptitude Test (old)80.23
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (raw)70.19
Cattell Culture Fair100.14
Logima Strictica 36160.09
916 Test50.03
Strict Logic Sequences Exam I19-0.12
Epiq Tests6-0.12
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales9-0.15
Nonverbal Cognitive Performance Examination20-0.20
Unknown tests22-0.25
Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version11-0.26
International High IQ Society Miscellaneous tests11-0.29
T.R.I.5-0.52
Titan Test8-0.55
W-876-0.65
Sigma Test10-0.69

Weighted average of correlations: -0.068

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used to obtain the true, honest statistics; correlations have not been artificially inflated by leaving out ceiling scores, outliers or other anomalies.

Please be aware that correlations with these external tests are in most cases affected (depressed, typically) by one or more of the following: 1) Little overlap with the object test because of the much lower ceilings and inherent ceiling effects of the tests used in regular psychology; 2) Candidates reporting scores selectively, for instance only the higher ones while withholding lower ones; 3) Candidates reporting, or having been reported by psychometricians, incorrect scores.

Estimated loadings of P.S.I.A. Just on particular item types

These are estimated g factor loadings, but against homogeneous tests containing only particular item types, as opposed to non-compound heterogeneous tests. Although tending to surprise the lay person, it is not uncommon for tests to have high loadings on item types they do not actually contain themselves. Such loadings reflect the empirical fact that most tests for mental abilities measure primarily g, regardless of their contents; that the major part of test score variance is caused by g, and only a minor part by factors germane to particular item types. It is of key importance to understand that this is a fact of nature, a natural phenomenon, and not something that was built into the tests by the test constructors.

Typeg loading of P.S.I.A. Just on that type
Verbal-0.54
Numerical0.49
Spatial0.25
Logical-0.64
Heterogeneous-0.44

There is no overlap between the categories in this table as a result of leaving out compound tests.

Balanced g loading = -0.18

Remark: This pattern of loadings seems to be roughly in accordance with the existing societal, historical, and evolutionary observations that the more cultured, verbal, "alpha" people and peoples tend toward soft treatment of crime, while the less cultured, less verbal, "barbaric" people and peoples who are still closer to the raw ice-age nonverbal ability pattern tend toward hard application of justice. These matters are discussed from an evolutionary viewpoint in Human evolution, under Origin and development of the intelligence required for the higher civilizational levels.

National means for P.S.I.A. Just

Country n mean score
China362.33
France259.50
Argentina258.00
Bosnia_and_Herzegovina256.50
Bulgaria256.50
Australia655.67
Israel455.50
Poland355.33
Mexico355.00
India1253.33
South_Africa453.00
Brazil752.43
United_States9852.15
Yugoslavia552.00
Korea_South351.00
New_Zealand251.00
Philippines249.00
Netherlands3448.29
Sweden1747.94
United_Kingdom1347.77
Belgium847.50
Spain647.33
Finland546.80
Norway546.60
Romania245.00
Denmark244.50
Turkey444.25
Italy343.67
Germany1243.58
Canada943.22
Austria242.00

For reasons of privacy, only countries with 2 or more candidates are included in this table. Ranking is based on the unrounded means, and then alphabetic.

Correlation of P.S.I.A. Just with personal details

Personalia n r
P.S.I.A. System factor470.69
P.S.I.A. Cruel2950.38
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid2950.28
P.S.I.A. Cold2950.23
P.S.I.A. Antisocial2950.22
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms170.22
P.S.I.A. Neurotic2950.18
P.S.I.A. Introverted2950.17
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor2950.17
Year of birth2920.14
Disorders (own)2920.11
P.S.I.A. Rare2950.09
Sex2940.07
Observed associative horizon90.07
Disorders (parents and siblings)2910.06
Mother's educational level279-0.00
P.S.I.A. Orderly295-0.01
P.S.I.A. Rational295-0.01
Father's educational level277-0.02
P.S.I.A. True295-0.03
P.S.I.A. Extreme295-0.08
Educational level292-0.10
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor295-0.22
Observed behaviour21-0.24

Correlation with personal details of P.S.I.A. Just - within females

Personalia n r
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms30.97
P.S.I.A. System factor100.83
P.S.I.A. Cruel570.40
P.S.I.A. Antisocial570.24
Year of birth550.15
P.S.I.A. Cold570.14
Disorders (own)550.10
Father's educational level470.10
Disorders (parents and siblings)540.03
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid570.03
P.S.I.A. Neurotic570.02
P.S.I.A. True57-0.02
Mother's educational level47-0.03
P.S.I.A. Introverted57-0.03
P.S.I.A. Rational57-0.06
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor57-0.08
P.S.I.A. Rare57-0.09
Educational level55-0.14
P.S.I.A. Extreme57-0.14
P.S.I.A. Orderly57-0.19
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor57-0.24

Correlation with personal details of P.S.I.A. Just - within males

Personalia n r
P.S.I.A. System factor370.67
P.S.I.A. Cruel2370.37
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid2370.32
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms140.26
P.S.I.A. Cold2370.24
P.S.I.A. Neurotic2370.23
P.S.I.A. Antisocial2370.22
P.S.I.A. Deviance factor2370.22
P.S.I.A. Introverted2370.22
Observed associative horizon80.21
Year of birth2370.15
P.S.I.A. Rare2370.13
Disorders (own)2370.11
Disorders (parents and siblings)2370.08
P.S.I.A. Orderly2370.04
Mother's educational level2320.00
P.S.I.A. True237-0.01
P.S.I.A. Rational237-0.02
Father's educational level230-0.05
P.S.I.A. Extreme237-0.05
Educational level237-0.10
Observed behaviour19-0.11
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor237-0.20

Correlation with national I.Q.s of P.S.I.A. Just

Correlation of this test with national average I.Q.s published by Lynn and Vanhanen:

Estimated g factor loadings Upward and Downward of specific scores

In parentheses the number of score pairs on which that estimated g factor loading is based. The Upward and Downward values are calculated including the pertinent score itself. It is normal that g factor loadings go down when the range is restricted, so some inevitable depression must be taken into account.

ScoreUpward (n)Downward (n)
10-0.44 (546)NaN (0)
40-0.47 (458)0.57 (62)
500.22 (229)0.28 (222)
600.42 (30)-0.47 (452)
90NaN (0)-0.44 (546)

Remark: The negative g loading appears to occur in the middle part, while at the low and high ends there is some positive loading.