Personality Scales for Intelligent Adults - Statistics of Deviance factor

© Jan. 2011 Paul Cooijmans

Introduction

These statistics are from the version of the P.S.I.A. that was in use from 2003 to 2007, and was highly similar to the later Revision 2007. The scores are t-scores (mean = 50, σ = 10) normed on an earlier group (partly overlapping this one), so this group may not have an exact mean and σ of 50 and 10. An explanation of the scale can be found through the test's order page.

Explanatory and analytical remarks regarding the interpretation of the statistics are purposely largely avoided, so it is up to the reader to study the report carefully and thus obtain a clear impression of the test's validity - that is, "what it measures". Although the statistics sometimes reveal an almost chilling discriminative power, experience shows that explicitly observing that in a remark tends to evoke negative responses in persons who recognize themselves ("Your remark betrays that your are biased! The test only measures your personal biases!", etcetera).

Scores on P.S.I.A. Deviance factor

Contents type: Personality test other than for mental ability.   Period: 2003-2007

24 *
26 *
28 *
29 *
30 ***
31 ***
32 *
33 *******
34 ********
35 *******
36 ********
37 ****************
38 **************
39 ***************
40 ********
41 *********
42 *************************
43 ******************
44 *****************
45 **************
46 ******************
47 ***********************
48 ***************
49 ***********
50 ***********
51 *************
52 ***********
53 ******************
54 **************
55 ******
56 ******
57 *********
58 ******
59 *********
60 ******
61 ***********
62 ******
63 ***
64 ******
65 ****
66 ***
67 **
68 **
69 *
70 *
71 **
72 **
73 **
75 *
76 **
77 *
85 *
94 *

Scores by males

n = 325

24 *
26 *
28 *
29 *
31 **
33 *****
34 *******
35 *****
36 **
37 *************
38 ************
39 ************
40 *****
41 ******
42 *********************
43 ***************
44 ***************
45 **********
46 *****************
47 ********************
48 **************
49 **********
50 *********
51 *********
52 ********
53 ***************
54 *************
55 ****
56 *****
57 *********
58 ******
59 ******
60 ****
61 **********
62 *****
63 ***
64 ******
65 ***
66 *
68 *
69 *
70 *
71 **
72 **
73 **
75 *
76 *
77 *
85 *
94 *

Scores by females

n = 78

30 ***
31 *
32 *
33 **
34 *
35 **
36 ******
37 ***
38 **
39 ***
40 ***
41 ***
42 ****
43 ***
44 **
45 ****
46 *
47 ***
48 *
49 *
50 **
51 ****
52 ***
53 ***
54 *
55 *
56 *
59 ***
60 **
61 *
62 *
65 *
66 **
67 **
68 *
76 *

Correlation of P.S.I.A. Deviance factor with other tests by Paul Cooijmans

Test n r
The Sargasso Test70.63
Analogies #150.59
Letters70.58
Qoymans Automatic Test #370.44
The LAW - Letters And Words50.40
Short Test For Genius80.39
Cooijmans On-Line Test90.36
Odds110.34
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 2240.26
Spatial section of The Marathon Test50.24
Numbers270.24
Numerical Insight Test120.23
Numerical and spatial sections of The Marathon Test50.21
Lieshout International Mesospheric Intelligence Test250.15
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice170.14
KIT Intelligence Test - first attempts100.12
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #570.12
Isis Test150.09
Associative LIMIT Test120.08
Genius Association Test440.08
Reason200.06
Numerical section of The Marathon Test50.06
The Nemesis Test90.06
The Final Test370.06
Cooijmans Intelligence Test - Form 1130.04
Verbal section of Test For Genius - Revision 2004320.03
Analogies of Long Test For Genius300.03
Space, Time, and Hyperspace470.02
Long Test For Genius250.00
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #4108-0.03
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #368-0.03
Spatial Insight Test23-0.04
Words8-0.05
Cartoons of Shock11-0.05
Evens7-0.07
Intelligence Quantifier by assessment22-0.08
Association subtest of Long Test For Genius35-0.09
The Test To End All Tests19-0.13
The Marathon Test5-0.15
Test For Genius - Revision 200432-0.16
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #212-0.16
Bonsai Test13-0.22
Spatial section of Test For Genius - Revision 200432-0.23
Reason Behind Multiple-Choice - Revision 20087-0.24
Verbal section of The Marathon Test5-0.24
Test of Shock and Awe14-0.26
Qoymans Multiple-Choice #111-0.27
Reason - Revision 20087-0.42
Qoymans Automatic Test #29-0.44
Qoymans Automatic Test #110-0.46
Test of the Beheaded Man6-0.52
Psychometric Qrosswords6-0.66
Low Countries Aptitude Test5-0.77

Weighted average of correlations: 0.001

Conservatively estimated minimum g loading: 0.03

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used to obtain the true, honest statistics; correlations have not been artificially inflated by leaving out ceiling scores, outliers or other anomalies.

Correlation of P.S.I.A. Deviance factor with tests by others

Test n r
Mysterium Entrance Exam140.56
916 Test80.55
Mega Test60.46
Cattell Culture Fair140.39
Logima Strictica 36230.30
Chimera High Ability Riddle Test50.29
Scholastic Aptitude Test (old)90.20
Nonverbal Cognitive Performance Examination350.16
Cito-toets80.08
Scholastic Aptitude Test (new)50.06
Strict Logic Spatial Exam 4890.05
Omega Contemplative Items Pool60.04
American College Testing program100.02
Graduate Record Examination70.02
Strict Logic Sequences Exam I32-0.01
Culture Fair Numerical Spatial Examination - Final version15-0.03
Sigma Test17-0.05
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (raw)8-0.08
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales15-0.09
Titan Test9-0.13
Epiq Tests13-0.13
International High IQ Society Miscellaneous tests14-0.18
Miller Analogies Test (raw; old version)5-0.26
Cattell Verbal5-0.31
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (I.Q.)9-0.31
T.R.I.9-0.35
Unknown tests28-0.38
W-876-0.85

Weighted average of correlations: 0.014

Ranking in above table is based on the unrounded correlations. All available data is present in this table, no tests are left out except for those with less than 5 score pairs. All known pairs are used to obtain the true, honest statistics; correlations have not been artificially inflated by leaving out ceiling scores, outliers or other anomalies.

Please be aware that correlations with these external tests are in most cases affected (depressed, typically) by one or more of the following: 1) Little overlap with the object test because of the much lower ceilings and inherent ceiling effects of the tests used in regular psychology; 2) Candidates reporting scores selectively, for instance only the higher ones while withholding lower ones; 3) Candidates reporting, or having been reported by psychometricians, incorrect scores.

Estimated loadings of P.S.I.A. Deviance factor on particular item types

These are estimated g factor loadings, but against homogeneous tests containing only particular item types, as opposed to non-compound heterogeneous tests. Although tending to surprise the lay person, it is not uncommon for tests to have high loadings on item types they do not actually contain themselves. Such loadings reflect the empirical fact that most tests for mental abilities measure primarily g, regardless of their contents; that the major part of test score variance is caused by g, and only a minor part by factors germane to particular item types. It is of key importance to understand that this is a fact of nature, a natural phenomenon, and not something that was built into the tests by the test constructors.

Typeg loading of P.S.I.A. Deviance factor on that type
Verbal-0.10
Numerical0.45
Spatial-0.14
Logical0.21
Heterogeneous-0.15

There is no overlap between the categories in this table as a result of leaving out compound tests.

Balanced g loading = 0.06

National means for P.S.I.A. Deviance factor

Country n mean score
Argentina266.00
Poland557.00
New_Zealand255.00
Italy454.25
Austria353.67
Mexico553.40
Philippines253.00
South_Africa452.50
Brazil852.13
Canada1551.80
Norway751.00
United_States13050.56
France449.75
Sweden2147.57
Iran247.00
Turkey447.00
China346.67
Israel546.60
Hong_Kong246.50
Germany1946.32
United_Kingdom1846.11
India1646.06
Spain645.17
Bosnia_and_Herzegovina245.00
Netherlands5444.52
Finland844.50
Korea_South344.33
Belgium1143.91
Denmark443.25
Greece443.25
Bulgaria243.00
Australia642.17
Portugal241.00
Japan240.00
Romania240.00
Yugoslavia537.80

For reasons of privacy, only countries with 2 or more candidates are included in this table. Ranking is based on the unrounded means, and then alphabetic.

Correlation of P.S.I.A. Deviance factor with personal details

Personalia n r
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid2950.87
P.S.I.A. Rare2950.85
P.S.I.A. Introverted2950.83
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms310.72
P.S.I.A. Neurotic2950.57
P.S.I.A. Extreme2950.42
Observed associative horizon110.38
Disorders (own)4010.36
P.S.I.A. Antisocial2950.35
Disorders (parents and siblings)4000.27
P.S.I.A. Cold2950.24
P.S.I.A. System factor1560.24
P.S.I.A. True2950.22
Year of birth4010.20
Observed behaviour310.20
P.S.I.A. Just2950.17
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor4040.11
Father's educational level3820.11
Sex4030.08
Mother's educational level3840.08
P.S.I.A. Cruel2950.06
P.S.I.A. Rational2950.03
P.S.I.A. Orderly295-0.11
Educational level401-0.21

Correlation with personal details of P.S.I.A. Deviance factor - within females

Personalia n r
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms30.97
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid570.88
P.S.I.A. Rare570.85
P.S.I.A. Introverted570.85
P.S.I.A. Neurotic570.72
Disorders (own)760.52
P.S.I.A. Extreme570.38
Disorders (parents and siblings)750.36
P.S.I.A. Antisocial570.34
P.S.I.A. True570.23
Father's educational level680.22
Mother's educational level670.21
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor780.13
P.S.I.A. Cold570.12
P.S.I.A. System factor310.12
P.S.I.A. Cruel570.00
Year of birth76-0.02
P.S.I.A. Just57-0.08
Educational level76-0.10
P.S.I.A. Orderly57-0.11
P.S.I.A. Rational57-0.12

Correlation with personal details of P.S.I.A. Deviance factor - within males

Personalia n r
P.S.I.A. Aspergoid2370.87
P.S.I.A. Rare2370.84
P.S.I.A. Introverted2370.83
Gifted Adult's Inventory of Aspergerisms280.70
P.S.I.A. Neurotic2370.56
P.S.I.A. Extreme2370.44
Observed associative horizon100.36
P.S.I.A. Antisocial2370.35
Disorders (own)3250.33
P.S.I.A. System factor1250.27
P.S.I.A. Cold2370.26
Year of birth3250.26
Disorders (parents and siblings)3250.25
P.S.I.A. Just2370.22
P.S.I.A. True2370.21
Observed behaviour270.17
P.S.I.A. Ethics factor3250.11
Father's educational level3140.08
P.S.I.A. Cruel2370.06
Mother's educational level3170.05
P.S.I.A. Rational2370.04
P.S.I.A. Orderly237-0.11
Educational level325-0.25

Correlation with national I.Q.s of P.S.I.A. Deviance factor

Correlation of this test with national average I.Q.s published by Lynn and Vanhanen:

Estimated g factor loadings Upward and Downward of specific scores

In parentheses the number of score pairs on which that estimated g factor loading is based. The Upward and Downward values are calculated including the pertinent score itself. It is normal that g factor loadings go down when the range is restricted like this, but careful study of the Upward and Downward columns may reveal possible scores below or above which the test loses validity.

ScoreUpward (n)Downward (n)
200.03 (955)NaN (0)
30-0.22 (930)NaN (0)
40-0.36 (751)0.52 (160)
50-0.30 (359)0.37 (513)
60-0.50 (99)0.34 (789)
70NaN (0)0.17 (924)
94NaN (0)0.03 (955)

Remark: The lower part of this scale correlates positively with g; higher up this becomes negative. The higher levels of deviance apparently do not go well with intelligence.